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Departments Required in Hospital and Its Functions, Medical Department, Paramedical Department, Operation Theatre, Personnel Department and more

Departments Required in Hospital and Its Functions: A hospital is basically a wellness facility that offer specialized medical and nursing care along with medical supplies to the sick ones or patients. A general hospital is the most known form of hospital, which basically carries an emergency department to control urgent health issues like accident and fire victims and medical emergencies.

Departments Required in Hospital and Its Functions

There are a wide range of departments in hospitals such as Outpatient department (OPD), Medical Department, Inpatient Service (IP), Paramedical Department, Nursing Department, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine Department, Operation Theatre Complex (OT), Radiology Department (X- ray), Pharmacy Department, Non Professional Services (Business Management), Dietary Department, Personal Department and Medical Record Department (MRD).

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Departments in Hospitals and Its Functions

Inpatient Service (IP)

The IP or Inpatient Service acts as the heart of hospital. It offers services for instance diet, lodging and medical care. Efficiently, it can be divided into:

  • Wards and rooms
  • Nurses station
  • Dietary services
  • Sanitary facilities and other requirements
  • Ward such as  Intensive Care Wards (ICU), Intermediate Care Wards and Isolation Wards

Outpatient Department (OPD)

Most hospitals now consists an OPD which is  basically Outpatient Department. The most benefit of OPD is that abundant of the analytical unit and remedial work can be done there without admitting the patient, thus reducing the medical expenses.

The scope of Outpatient Department includes the following:

1. Consultation, procedures, investigation, specialty services.

2. Promotive and preventive health care: Clinics including antenatal, diabetic, postnasal and under five.

3. Rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, etc.)

​4. Health education

5. Counseling

​Medical Department

The medical department comprises of various clinical services. Such include surgery, medicine, obstetrics, gynaecology, paediatrics, eye, dental, ENT, neurology, orthopaedics, psychiatry, cardiology, V.D., skin, nuclear medicine, plastic surgery, infectious disease etc. Medical superintendent is the one who directs and manages all medical departments.

Nursing Department

Basically a chief nursing officer or nursing director leads a nursing department in a hospital. They are responsible of overseeing the hospital’s clinical nursing research, practice and regulation.

Pharmacy Department

A Pharmacy is run for providing drugs in a hospital, including supply, purchasing and distribution.

Physiotherapy Department

Physiotherapists are responsible for working via physical therapies such as massage, exercise, and manipulation of joints, bones, and muscle tissues.

Purchasing & Supplies Department

This department is in charge of procurement function of the hospital.

Radiology Department

It is the specialty or branch of medicine that deals with the study and use of imaging technology such as x-ray and radiation to diagnose and treating disease. This department is highly specialized, full-service department which aims at meeting all clinician and patient needs in diagnostic imaging and image-guided therapies.

Radiotherapy Department

It offers radiation therapy which is basically the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation.

Renal Department

It offer facilities for peritoneal dialysis and helps ease home Hemodialysis.

Rheumatology Department

Rheumatologists treat patients for musculoskeletal disorders for instance: ligaments, bones, tendons, joints, nerves and muscles.

Sexual Health Department

This department is also called as genitourinary medicine – It provides testing, advice and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy testing, family planning care and advice, care for sexual and genital problems.

Social Work Department

Clinical social workers generally help those patients and their families who deal with various psychosocial issues and stresses regarding coping with illness and maintaining health. Social workers, advocates and resource specialists form a network that directs the challenges faced by the families, improves accessibility to health care other services.

Operation Theatre Complex (OT)

This includes one or more operation theatres and other facilities. It must be located in a place where there is a quick and easy access to the delivery suite. These consists of four zone – outer zone, sterile zone, clean zone and disposal zone. A sterilization room with an autoclave is also presented there. However, the number of OT depends on various factors. OT must have an arrangement for good ventilation and lighting.

Delivery suite is a place or room where births take place. It is categorized into three zones are first stage room, second stage room, delivery room. This room includes good ventilation and lighting and adequate number of staff.


It has only one basic function i.e. to keep the hospital clean.


The laundry look after the whole team linen of the hospital. It perform functions such as washing the dirty linen, repairing the torn linen, replacing the condemned linen

Personnel Department

Personnel department in the hospital is accomplished with law of the land mainly the labour laws and is in charge for recruitment, promotion, selection, termination, transfer, etc. This department functions under the personnel officer who is well qualified and certified in the personnel administration. It performs following functions, directed to the welfare of the personnel such as recruitment of personnel, interviewing prospective employees, promotion and transfer of employees, termination of employment, in service training programme, remuneration and incentives, safety, health programme, recreation, etc.

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